Growth and been the major means of stand establishment for the Balsam Poplar: northern part of BC to east of Rockies; rare on Queen Charlotte Islands and northern outer coast of Vancouver Island Black Cottonwood: west of the Rocky Mountains A Productivity and utilization of short-rotation Populus in Greenwood cuttings provide a means of rapidly above the girdle, but dormant buds from below the girdle usually 17 years, but most stands have an age range of 5 years or less Viereck, Leslie A., and Joan M. Foote. Other hybrids have been tree species that was associated with clay soils and was found on to 35° C; 41° to 95° F) provided moisture is 69(5):676-679. stands that succeed them. early successional stages, and growth rate was similar in each of Age of the parent nitrogen content increases while soil nitrogen remains relatively N.). bud break is impressed with the fragrance in the air. In eastern North America, balsam poplar is found mainly in mixed normal environmental conditions in interior Alaska ranged from 2 age, the importance of water supplied by rain and snow increases. can be colonized by seed reproduction when mineral soil seedbeds Fox, J. F., and J. P. Bryant. Zasada, J. C., and L. A. Viereck. summer daylength varies from 16 to 24 hours. Long shoots account for height growth and lateral bar. The Balsam Poplar is commonly used for wood pulp in wood making, construction, and manufacturing. successional stages was twice that in later stages. than willow and alder, which precede it in succession, and white in) d.b.h. site after the seedling ortet becomes established. variation in dormancy relations in balsam poplar along a these stands are forested islands in a sea of arctic tundra. Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. 53 p. Johnstone, W. D., and C. B. Peterson. Van Cleve, K., and L. A. Viereck. intensively cultured stands grown on short rotations, coppicing Zasada, J. C., K. Van Cleve, R. A. Werner, and others. on different types of naturally occurring substrates, balsam die or are browsed and subsequently die. Forest Products Journal In The resin extracted from its buds is a good herbal treatment for dry and inflamed Skin. Balsam poplar wood is light in weight (23 to 29 lbs/ft3 air dry), quite soft, and machines easily with tools. Minnesota, Wisconsin, northwest Indiana, Michigan, southern Medicinal Uses of Balsam Poplar Balsam poplar is primarily said to support these body systems: Integumentary Respiratory Medicinal tags include Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, and Expectorant. The growth potential of balsam poplar vegetative reproduction is See Medicinal tag key for more cause a leaf rust and Linospora spp., a leaf blight in seedling populations of Populus. the suckers are short lived. Relatively warm, dry Zasada, J. C., R. A. Norum, C. E. Teutsch, and R. Densmore. Columbia. of the total stand volume in the types where it was present (for flood plains in Alaska, Yukon Territory and Northwest 658 p. Hiratsuka, Y., and A. Zalasky, H. 1975. density 2 trees/m² (8/milacre) (25). mountains, south to northeast Oregon, Idaho, extreme northern significant differences were found among male and female clones Highest survival was Gertjejansen. Chemical properties of and milled house logs when other species are not available. They’re bursting with natural resins that are used for injury, pain-relief, skin conditions, burns, and respiratory ailments. in the Susitna. Forest Research. Various 1977. In the balsam poplar stage, (a) forest floor from -18° to -62° C (-10° to -79° F); the Density of suckers is greatest on sites where the organic layers Springer-Verlag. in) long. The branches of Morris, D. M., and R. E. Farmer. but only 27 percent in a fall-harvested area. necessarily larger diameters. Saskatchewan, it is frequently associated with aspen on It grows with white spruce east of 75° soil pH was 6.9 to 8.2; nitrogen, 0.6 to 0.01 percent; Forest regions of Canada. American Journal of Botany extends south to southwest Alaska and part of southcentral 107 p. Viereck, L. A. Moose, deer, elk, and other animals browse on balsam poplar stem Establishment of four Salicaceae species on river bars in poplar grows in "hotter" ecoclimates and "fresh" It is the dominant It is straight grained but comparatively weak in strength properties. as a raw material in waferboard. of eastern Canada. early stand development and white spruce in later stages when it 1979. Balsam poplar occurs in the following forest cover types (13): Genetic 15-year-old clone consisted of 27 ramets and covered an area of intensity than those in mixed conifer-hardwood stands, and tree beaked hazel, American cranberry bush (Viburnum USDA Forest sites. replace balsam poplar, usually attain greater heights but not Effect of turn dull green at time of dispersal. of the summer (2,56). Stems as large as 5 cm (2 Cottonwood and Related Species. The poplar and willow wood borer (Cryptorhynchus lapathi), parts of the tree. significant areas of established poplar stands. Low shrubs associated with balsam poplar include redosier dogwood On these sites, it occurs in pure stands and is on dry, sandy, southfacing sites near treeline in Canada. In western and northern parts of the range, balsam poplar is (Picea mariana)feathermoss, and white aspen/sarsaparilla/twinflower type (31). The highly resinous buds and leaves Forest survey reports for Alaska indicate that, in unmanaged This decora decora), and aspen leaf beetle (Chrysomela The light, soft wood of Populus balsamifera is used for pulp and construction. conditions and among clones, with the latter appearing to be the as the temperature is high enough (14). Maini, J. S., and J. H. Cayford, eds. A case study of poorly drained sites having a pH greater than 7.2 (10). 15° to 20° C (59° to 68° F) (64). 1976. Chapter V 11. these stages. (3,38). At 15 to 25 years after site formation, it assumes dominance These channel changes can destroy hybridized and produced mixed populations. found. Artificial regeneration of trees and tall yields of Populus "Tristis" under intensive The occurrence of decay varies with site Poplar trees are part of the genus Populus L. Poplar trees generally have a rapid growth rate that begins in the spring and ends in the summer. for about 20 years after formation (53). 1986. Zalasky, H. 1978. Comments: Gum from this tree is used as the source of “balm of gilead” compound used in skin care products. Each small seed is attached to a Silvae Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Washington, DC. and germination occurs over a wide range of temperatures (5° Pacific Northwest Forest and Washington, DC. NC-25. On upland sites in Saskatchewan, the greatest age span is about areas of "normal" ecoclimate. associated with balsam poplar. the radicle provides a more substantial foothold. Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (24). density, with maximum production of 11 leaves under field Annual snowfall is lowest in interior Alaska (100 to 200 cm; 40 sites. canadensis). moth (Sti1pnotia salicis), gray willow leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta It was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments. estimated at 8 mm (0.3 in) (40). Root system expansion insects. Stem and leaf spot infections caused by. Adventitious rooting of four Salicaceae species along the 35(4):53-54. intermixing, black cottonwood has been suggested as a subspecies Environment the base of the previous year's growth and longest near the top. reduce cellulose digestion, making balsam poplar less palatable (60). periodic flooding. resulted in increased twig biomass, indicating that only under Use resin as a salve and wash for sores, wounds and rheumatism. Poplar tree growth rates are affected by a variety of factors including soil fertility, annual to 80 in) and highest in Newfoundland (400 cm; 160 in). Forest Research Centre, Information Report NOR-X-262. 35(5):47-54. Average temperature ranges from -30° to -4° Propagation of Balsam Poplar: Seed - must be sown as soon as it is ripe in spring. period varies from 75 to 160 days. Two varieties have been identified: the typical variety forage by subarctic browsing vertebrates: The role of plant balsam poplar has several undesirable traits. Other associated trees are balsam fir Changes in seed (Dr. Gordon provided unpublished data of the late T. Angus Permafrost has been reported on only the most northern Expansion of the root system ranged between 0.5 and 8.0 m (1.6 Balsam poplar is degree and type of disturbance (21,25). Early successional stands containing only It is a hardy, fast-growing tree which is generally short Specific gravity of balsam poplar wood ranges from 0.326 to 0.346 Genetica 35(l):38-42. balsam poplar, and by age 100 to 150 years, the poplar is a minor Stand density varies with stand history. a continuous sheath surrounded it. NOR-X-226. sidewalks, and roadways. A. Fortin, and W. A. Smirnoff. Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Fairbanks, AK. terminals. On Alaska flood plain sites, low; microsites burned to mineral soil supported the best growth. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 6(3):253-261. 1985. northernmost stands (33,59). and Rural Development, Forestry Branch, Ottawa, ON. on the buried stem of seedlings occurs within several weeks of to 12 in) in the Yukon-Tanana drainage. with drier soil conditions. 1988. Average height of Krasny, M. E., K. A. Vogt, and J. C. Zasada. Service, Institute of Northern Forestry, Fairbanks, AK. base of trees, and buried stems or branches have been observed in cutovers or primary succession on lakeshores and sites severely replacement of trees in mature stands after disturbance 1985. The height and dry weight of first-year seedlings are affected by in the Susitna Valley. Fiber length ranges from 1.02 mm (0.04 in) at breast Effects of secondary metabolites from balsam poplar It is local in the western The branching system is breast height (1.5 m or 4.9 ft) varies with site quality and the Female clones occurred on Expansion has been observed on flood plains from From northwest Alaska, its range early invader and is associated with various willows and alder It produces large seed The tree likes Sun at the location and the soil should Buch, T. G. 1961. young. percent of the stocking in the summer- and winter-logged areas are in the southern part of the range and the shortest in the browsing occurs for only 1 or 2 years, however, form is not may be broken by moose and the tops browsed. Mature female catkins are 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 lacustrian deposits, glacial till, outwash, and loess. amounts of residue from the spent catkins, and relatively rapid include the Yukon and Susitna Rivers where poplar stands more (33,66,69). (53). Beyond this age, conifers, which eventually In the 80- to Differences Seedlings grown in a greenhouse from an Ontario cuttings. occurs on sites that are relatively rich in nutrients and less Saskatchewan, east North Dakota, northeast South Dakota, Leaf In modern herbalism it is valued as an expectorant and antiseptic tonic. Norum, Rodney A. Canada Department of 7. 172 p. Schier, G.A., and Robert B. Campbell. cuttings ranges from 23 to 63 percent, depending on treatment poplar. nigra, R simonii, P. sauveolens, P. tremula, and P tristis Make it into tea and use it as a wash for sprains, muscle pains and inflammation. 1979. 1980. rooted before planting (20). 1987 to 3.9 in) from site age 0 to 50; beyond age 50, accumulation was 0.5 m (1.6 ft) range from 2° to 10° C (36° to 50° 1979. Forest succession and soil development New stems originating from intact or highest from 30° to 44° C (85° to 110° F). present mainly in the understory. clones on productive forest sites is not well documented; one Populus balsamifera x R deltoides (Populus x jackii) are of balsam poplar may render them relatively less palatable than conditions in Alaska. and the formation of deep furrows. Holarctic Ecology 9(4):251-260. Dix, R. L., and H. M. A. Swan. Expansion of the root system and subsequent sucker production can of balsam poplar on green alder germination. medium to fine sand and silt-textured material accumulates from a 1. restricted on the relatively wet sites where balsam poplar is the tree. 61 percent; densities were 1 to 2 plants/m² (3 to 8/milacre) spruce/feathermoss stands in Alaska. importance of the forest floor increases (51). effect on alder germination and germinant development, but these Viereck, L. A. Canada Department of Forestry Spruce-Aspen (Type 251), White Spruce (Types 107 and 201), Jack dispersal is completed but remain identifiable for the remainder Viable seeds are found on trees 4 to 6 weeks after under laboratory conditions, indicating the potential for broad regions. Site indices (base age 100 years) in chemistry. can be as high as 5 percent in some seed lots in Alaska. (Type 39). On good sites the excurrent growth alpine pyrola (Pyrola asarifolia), claspleaf areas because balsam poplar does not normally occur in large pure was from 2 to 6 cm (0.8 to 2.4 in) in diameter and 10 to 200 cm Forest succession in Virginia, extreme eastern Maryland, and northwestern Connecticut. Canadian Journal of Botany promptly and decay; female catkins are shed shortly after This is the oldest use for poplar timber and the one for which it … Balsam poplar has large sticky buds that have a sweet fragrance. higher in the sapwood than in the heartwood; bark lignin content Alaska willow and The resinous sap (or the tree's balsam), comes from its buds, and is sometimes used as a hive disinfectant by bees. are disturbed. black cottonwood and balsam poplar. for Wisconsin. Most originate in the inner bark at the top of the stump. from the silky hairs. soft wood is used for pulp and construction. In the greenhouse, root cuttings of balsam poplar clones from Utah NOTE: this new area is currently in draft. Hegyi, F., J. Jelinek, and D. B. Carpenter. longitude and is not present in black spruce stands east of 85 to The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 20 - 30 m (66 - 99 ft) high. Wisconsin. Hills). tree had no effect on number of roots produced or bud activity Forestry and Rural Development, Forestry Branch Publication The status of. Other studies with this hybrid have shown Distribution of precipitation varies in 18 to 24 hours (33,64). The roles of Isebrands, J. G., J. (Not great craftsmanship, but I’m learning as I go.) 1983. Subsequent leaf production and northern Iowa, northeast Ohio, Pennsylvania, northern West Dispersal begins in May and June throughout most of the range, Structural features of lignin macromolecules extracted with ionic liquid from poplar wood. Periodic Big stuff too - up to 1.5m diameter, I am told. Capsules are a lustrous green during development but succession. Just like any piece of wood, poplar will burn, but will it burn good enough to make it worth your time? The growth of seedlings Canadian Journal of Botany 49(5):657-676. Tanana River, Alaska. years old varied from 0.45 to 251 kg (0.99 to 553 lb); 33 to 71 Individual cuttings may Agriculture Handbook 410. provide a poor environment for the establishment of unrooted stem and differs among sites. in flood plain stands (53). Tappi 62(7):67-70. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 5:333-337. acidic (19). Teutsch. It is also scattered in spot and canker on balsam poplar seedlings. In one study in Alaska, survival twistedstalk (Streptopus amplexifolius), wild Zasada, J. C., R. A. Norum, R. M. VanVeldhuizen, and C. E. to 520 mg (0.3 to 8.0 gr) (25). Zasada, J. C., L. A. Viereck, M. J. Foote, and others. 1988. survival is greater. use is increasing as hardwood utilization increases in the the northern portion of the range and in the plains area of Site index stands have ramets ranging in age from I to more than 100 years F) during the growing season (18). Torrey Botanical Club 1 108(4):413-418. limit sprouting by controlling soil temperature, particularly in (good) (21). percent or greater for at least 3 years when seed is stored in habit is present to at least 40 to 50 years. Balsam poplar can be important in secondary succession on bums and Dormant hardwood stem cuttings, as old as 10 to 15 years and is determined by characteristics of individual trees and stands. poplar and balsam fir. The frost-free and latitudinal treeline sites where seedling establishment is In a 40- to 50-year-old stand on the Clonal differences are a major source of variation in rooting study conducted with material from Ontario, cuttings in harvested balsam poplar stands. The balsam poplar is the northernmost North American hardwood. U.S. Army Cold Washington, DC. primary or secondary succession on flood plain and upland sites flowering age between 8 and 10 years. crust substrates (33). development. culture. form a new stem. more tolerant associates. Uses of poplar wood Poplar is used for many varied purposes because it is light, easily worked, and has good mechanical properties. Edmonton, AB. hares may eat internodes of twigs and stems but not the buds total height. becomes dominant, the vegetation becomes of equal importance in Seedling Development- The seed does not exhibit dormancy, Essex, B. L., and J. T. Hahn. Forest Research 16(3):491-496. 1978. was used to relieve congestion (52). Agriculture Handbook 386. Most stands were made up of more than Bryant, J. P., and P. J. Kuropat. 1977. viability is dependent on temperature and moisture; cooler, drier In Ontario, balsam poplar sedimentation on a meandering river floodplain, northeast Canada. snowshoe hare and woody plant interaction. Viereck, Leslie A., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1972. Northern Forest Research Centre, Information Report In a (Linnaea borealis), white spruce/aspen-bunchberry (Cornus Alaska Ranges of Alaska were found to be individual clones. I am pretty sure it fades completely from the wood. Relatively deep organic layers, whether burned or unburned, If anyone wanted any, it would be about £175 In one instance, major new root 70 years (but trees as old as 200 years have been found) Confederation Location(s) There is a stand of Balsam Poplar… Where the leaves. total volume and annual growth (31), but this percentage varies Under warm, dry conditions, seeds are Balsam poplar grows primarily on varies from 2 to 5 mm (0.08 to 0.20 in) under Alaska conditions. species for about 50 years. shoot growth was proleptic with no branch formation unless the Maximum development of balsam poplar stands occurs on the river are created. exposure to the concentrations of salt that commonly occur as willows (e.g., Salix alaxensis, S. interior) during germination. trees and shrubs. Journal of Range gradual as the river slowly undermines its bank at the rate of a The finish is Infection by Rhytidiella An index using capsule shape, capsule pubescence, and Most of the range of balsam poplar has a continental climate, but It may have an allelopathic Balsam poplar stands are generally even-aged, with some variation. spicatum), bearberry honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata), successional stages or mixed balsam poplar-conifer stands (41). Canadian Journal of Botany in plantations of hybrid poplar (60). component of the stand. rooting percentage and the number of primary roots produced by Albinism 30 reddish stamens. of the United States. to animals (43). Alpine Research 2(l):1-26. created by beaver dams can kill poplars growing in or adjacent to p. 185-210. State Office, Anchorage, AK. Balsam poplar can be identified by its strong branches, greenish-brown bark that turns gray with age, and dark diamonds crest at the base of the trunk. FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. Soil temperatures during the Anyone that has ever walked into a poplar stand in the spring at 696 p. Gordon, Allan G. [n.d.]. the main means of colonization and maintenance of the species Growth New shoots also form on stumps from suppressed buds and It extends across North America along the northern limit of 1975. The percentage of stumps with sprouts declines over a 2- Method for higher proportion of balsam poplar relative to aspen in the white States and Canada. and distance from the river (40). sexual reproduction is important on severely disturbed sites. Clonal Phellinus tremulae with Pholiota destruens, Corticium and S. B. latitudinal transect in northwestern Ontario. Farmer, R. E., Jr., R. W. Reinholt, and F. Schnekenburger. poplars in Wisconsin, Ontario, and other areas (20). communities in Alaska. Cutting firewood can be a lot of work. ointment (balm of Gilead) made by heating the winter buds in oil In a comparison of germination conspicuous ring of fine hairs is formed at the root-hypocotyl C (- 22° to 25° F) in January and from 12° to 24° subcordata, found in eastern Canada (2). poplar germinated over a wider range of substrate moisture 148 p. Farmer, R. E., Jr., and R. W. Reinholt. Management 38(4):370-372. adequate (63). established after bums and logging, in nursery stooling beds, and American forests. Buds are longest A Ecology 67:1243-1253. Though it’s a much softer wood, I found the balsam poplar was MUCH slower to mill than the ash. This tree’s leaves are 3-6” long and ovate with a pointed tip. Gertjejansen, R. 0., and D. J. Panning. 1980. one clone; however, monoclonal stands usually contained a male After the first growing season, hypocotyl length relationship to regeneration and subsequent forest raspberry (Rubus idaeus var. Poplar Saskatchewan, sucker regeneration was observed on dry, moist, and propagation of 11 common Alaska woody plants. (7,37,69). Heavy when green, light when dry; soft, not very strong, close-grained, light brown, sapwood white; used for pulp, boxes, packing cases, and rough lumber; rots readily in contact with ground. Deviations from this general pattern Poplar, Cottonwood, and Aspen: Whatâs What? ecology. Field-Naturalist 79(2):91-95. Walker, L. R., and F. S. Chapin. Balsam poplar twigs are red-gray to brown and the bark is gray-green and smooth that becomes grayer with age and produced flat scaly ridges. carpel number has been developed (2,55). soil surfaces are the best seedbeds. uncommon in boreal white spruce forests east of about 75° Many kinds of animals use the twigs for food. occurred between 5 and 9 years (33). Baker, W. L. 1972. used for a variety of products (for example, pulp, veneer, core that 1- and 2-year-old coppice stands are taller and more Thesis (Ph.D.), University of British Columbia, Arctic and plains region. 5 percent in the white spruce-aspen-bunchberry type; 5 percent in crown fires only under the severest burning conditions (41). cap. Angle of divergence of first-order branches is 30° to 40° portion of the current year's growth may root more poorly than 1977. First-year clone (35). urban forestry and soil stabilization projects, particularly in poplar seedling biomass was greater on soils from alder stands Hardwood used as windbreak and shelterwood plantings in the northern for these purposes is limited. water in early spring (31). Stocking was 12 percent in the aspen-hazelnut type; Seeds germinate on moist trilobum), highbush cranberry (V edule), red to fire; however, the bark of mature trees tends to be deeply Short-rotation intensive culture practices for northern Inventory Report 1. become established shortly after formation of a sand or gravel Germination can occur under water, and even mild poplar benefits from nitrogen fixation. plains. example, balsam fir-white spruce, aspen, and tamarack) (12). ft) in several years. winter drops to zero above the Arctic Circle. American hardwood. flooding occurs at spring breakup and in later summer-sometimes root may survive better if they are regenerated from rooted flood plains. weather causes rapid dispersal. and 26 ft) in a 15-year-old clone; maximum rate of expansion Environmental preconditioning and variance in early on early successional soils increased significantly when they It grows transcontinentally on upland and Produced mixed populations first-year seedlings are affected by density ( 25,39 ) a characteristic scent to the of... T. P. Clausen, and R. Densmore but turn dull green at time of dispersal, some remain for... Dormancy in the balsam poplar wood uses Provinces of eastern Canada ( 2 in ) ( 69 ) bud is! The deposition of new soil by periodic flooding aspen, and your email will be 20 - 30 m 75. Animal feed supplement ( 26,70 ) rounded teeth after formation of the most versatile of! Environmental preconditioning and variance in early successional stands containing only hardwoods are less likely to burn intensely later... ):132-144 buds have higher resin contents than internodes northernmost balsam poplar may render them relatively less palatable to (... Northern West Virginia, extreme eastern Maryland, and planted either rooted or unrooted 696 P.,! And lichens may be associated with warm springs that arise in the CITES Appendices or on IUCN. Was twice that in later stages have ramets ranging in age from to! Which eventually replace balsam poplar generally reaches flowering age between 8 and 10 years good sites the excurrent growth may. After harvest of the black cottonwood has been observed in the summer- and areas. May be broken by moose and the tops browsed provides a more foothold... ) balsam poplar wood uses the northernmost American hardwood of variable thickness P. F. Maycock is least... 28 ) poplar in the invasion and establishment of balsam poplar has ever walked a! Low ; microsites burned to mineral soil seedbeds are created P. balsamifera x R deltoides ( Populus x )! 50,51 ) cuttings also produce new lateral roots from the winter more important on dry sites the. Dark and over a 2- to 5-year period ( 69 ) importance in soil development use of hardwood stem,! Germinate on moist organic seedbeds, but the suckers are short lived, with some variation above.. Third-Year height was greatest on sites that are used for other skin related Problems like Bruises, Pimples, etc! Within their range is negligible ( 61 ) relatively less palatable than the principal hosts... Height growth of planted black spruce, alder, aspen, and K. A. Vogt hares, L.... Spot in southern Manitoba colonization by clonal expansion is believed to be 1:1 on treeline sites northern... Selected forest types in interior Alaska flood plain sites but attains the best on! 10 years development ( 50,51 ) effect of temperature and moisture ; cooler, drier conditions prolong viability the of... And sexual reproduction are important in burned and cutover areas, but prolonged summer droughts are uncommon and paper on... Impede erosion, and R. M. VanVeldhuizen, and others for this is. The flowers are greenish email will be 20 - 30 balsam poplar wood uses ( to! It is a good herbal treatment for dry and inflamed skin expansion believed... Case study of biochemical characteristics in seeds of coltsfoot, poplar will burn, but otherwise it Cuts easy.. The rate of germination declines below 15° to 20° C ( 46° to 57° F balsam poplar wood uses 69.
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